Learning Through Observation

When Dave asked me to guest write for his website I was honored and humbled.
I have admired Dave’s incredible work as a coach for a while now and just two weeks ago spent several days with him.

Over the course of my visit in Dublin we conversed about many things.
We covered topics of fitness, family, our youth, history, science, whiskey, music, and just plain ol’ shootin’ the shit.
Out of dialogue, thoughts and ponderings are born. So when I asked Dave, “What do you want me to write about?” and he replied, “Whatever you want?” the wheels began spinning.
You see, like most writers, I prefer to be given a topic (hopefully something I know well) then go from there but an open platform can be tough.

I remember in one conversation we had we were discussing our kids, Dave has two sons a 3 year old and a 5 year old (nearly 6) and I have one son a 1 year old (just turned).
Of course we talked about the cute and funny things they do. The joys of parenting etcetera, but beyond that we got into the essence of human movement. Movement patterns that begin and develop when we are kids reaching masterful levels in just the first several years of our existence then something happens.

We lose it.

While in Dublin, Dave and I attended a Movement X workshop with Ido Portal. If you are unfamiliar with this great teacher and mover I encourage you to Google him.
To my surprise the workshop was less about movement and more about being a better teacher. I really liked this approach as I have always fancied myself more of a teacher than a trainer and my customers students more than clients. Part of being a good teacher is being a good student.
I have really committed myself to becoming a full time student of movement in the last year and a half or so.

As I dove into this methodology and approach to exercise I have to find teachers and inspiration abound.

Movement is not something you can simply learn from a book or a YouTube lecture series.
Its odd because we are born knowing movement.
No really, it is a very frustrating paradox for me and something I wrestle with constantly (perhaps another article for another day).
The title of this article is “Learning Through Observation” and that is why movement becomes a frustrating paradox, because I watch how effortless it is for kids.
Earlier I mentioned discussing child rearing with Coach Dave.

I watch my son with a keen eye daily. He watches me too.
We learn from each other. When I do a handstand in our living room he stares at me and grins ear to ear. He then tries it himself and does something similar to downward facing dog.
Now that’s about all he has learned from me so far. Everything else he just DOES.
Mind you I am a Movement and Strength Coach, people pay me pretty fair wages to teach them how to move. Yet I can barely teach my 1 year old son anything because he is already wired to do so much. So I watch him. I learn.
We actually have a very difficult locomotion at Asylum Fitness called the Ronan Crawl (Ronan is his name). Seriously its tough, but it came from when he was learning to crawl and would go from carpet to hardwood floor and would lift a leg out to the side because his knees weren’t toughened yet.
He climbs stairs, has since 6 months, he dances, he climbs on and off the couch, he squats for everything. Yet no one has taught him any of this.

As a teacher I have to have a keen eye for movement patterns. I watch my students move, some better than others but all patterns tell a story. Learning through observation isn’t a one way street, it isn’t even a two way street. It’s more like a clusterf*!% of an intersection with loads to gain from many different avenues.
In fact if M.C. Escher was a highway commissioner that is what the junction of movement learning would look like. The first way of learning through movement, and by no means is this list limited or exclusive this is just a bit of perspective, is the pattern itself. In some ways this might be the easiest. In this situation you are observing what the pattern is telling you.
Non verbal communication is the key to observing movement as Ido said, “Shut up and let the movement speak.”

What dysfunctions, asymmetries, or glitches are there in the pattern? Are there any?
Or is the movement beautiful, controlled and fluid?
The reason I think this is the easiest is because you more than likely have an idea of what the pattern should look like and therefore if it is off, even a little it will be blatant.

For example, Dave and I partnered up at the workshop for a little brachiation drill, he immediately noticed my right hip was high.
Not very high but high enough for his eye to notice it and his brain to say, “that’s not right.” The pattern told a story, in this case the dysfunction was due to a brutal 24+ hours of traveling the day before. All that sitting and cramped travel had my hip all banjaxed (had to use that word it was my favorite from the trip). So the first aspect of learning through observation is just knowing what’s off about a pattern, person when they are moving. I use this daily with my students as a sort of constant assess and reassessing of the session.

Another way of learning, and this one is big for me is drawing inspiration. As I mentioned before my son seems to have a strong grasp on motor control and development. I can’t tell you how many drills and patterns I have watched him do then taken to my students to experiment with and practice. Go somewhere that has a bunch of kids playing and without looking like a total creeper watch. Free your mind and watch.
Then duplicate.
Then eventually create.
There is nothing more hilarious than taking a group of adults to a playground.
However after a while the self image insecurities wear off and the magic begins.
Then the adults move like kids (sorta) but if they observe kids playing before they try it themselves the results are much different. Mimicry is a great teacher.
I don’t just draw on kids for inspiration though. I look for movement in everything I don’t discriminate. I watch dancers, I watch martial artists, I watch traucers (people who practice parkour), I watch gymnasts, I watch pets especially cats, other animals such as primates, Ninja Warriors and then I try what they are doing. Really anything in motion can be your teacher if you just allow your mind to be free and truly observe the movement. Then give it a try!

Honestly that is my biggest secret for movement, just try different patterns.
Its no million dollar tip, but it will change your life and the way you feel and move if you are constantly trying new patterns and exploring movement.

The final method of learning through observation that I will give you is observing yourself.
Often I have an idea in my head of what I look like doing a movement. On film it usually looks way different, most of the time for the worse but sometimes better.
Too often we are so concerned with criticism and we just want to be told good job.
It is really hard to critique yourself because this takes a certain level of integrity and honesty.
My movements started getting much better and much cleaner when I stopped patting myself on the back for sucking and was able to comfortable look at a video of myself and say it was complete shit and practice some more. Seriously, you have to be ok telling yourself that a pattern is shit or else you will perpetually exist in a cloud of delusion.

The end game as a coach/teacher is to make someone better, however I can’t make someone better if they don’t think they need work.  
Beyond just the quality of the movement you should also be able to learn more about creating movement and expression through movement through watching yourself.  Often when I watch myself I see moments where I can add this or connect that. The possibilities are endless and the result is freedom. Move more and you will be free.

Mark Smith
Asylum Fitness

Putting Quality before Quantity

I’ve yet another pearl of wisdom inspired by the Ido Portal the other week.
I know I’ve been like a broken record with “Ido said this…” and “Ido said that…” like some star struck fan boy.
But when you spend time with someone who has made an art of his work and talks such sense, it’s hard not to be impressed.

But today I want to talk about quality.

In the strength world the deadlift is considered the truest test of strength. This is largely because there is no real way to cheat it. You take a weight that is sat on the floor and you either lock it out or you don’t.
There’s no question on depth like there is in the squat, there’s no question on bouncing the weight like in the bench press. It either goes up or it doesn’t, in this respect it is pure.

This is why all strength sports have rules in place. An Olympic lifter can wobble and step as much as he wants at the top of the lift, but the judge wont accept it until he is rock still and unmoving until all three white lights are on.
A power lifter must get the hip crease level with the knee to have his squat counted (at least that’s the official story….)
A kettlebell sports athlete must wait for the rep to be counted before releasing the bell from its lockout.


These are standards that are in place to ensure a fair competition.

But in the world of the Ido Portal method, they have standards for their bodyweight drills. And as they were explained to me, little lights went on in my head. And one of them was, “I’m actually a little soft with my guys sometimes”

The story starts when Ido and his crew took us through their upper body strength protocols which revolve around the Chin Up and the Dip.
I joined the beginner section so I could learn their progressions and regressions on the basic exercises, while my buddy went into the more advanced section so we could have a complete set of notes between us.

The first thing Odelia did when discussing the Chin Up was ask for a definition of the lift.
Where does it start?
Where does it end?
If neither of these points are met, can we call it a rep?

Odelia Goldschmidt just hanging about

Odelia Goldschmidt just hanging about

Much like the deadlift, it starts on the floor, it ends when the hips and knee are fully extended, anything else, and it’s a no count.

For Ido’s guys the chin starts in a dead hang and ends when the elbow joint is completely closed and the body is touching the bar.
And that’s final!

If you don’t have the strength to touch the bar at the top, then this is isolated and worked on until you can. Much like a power lifter will do lockout work or speed work.

This thought process and discipline is the key to progression and success.
If the rep doesn’t meet the predetermined standards, than it’s a no count. If it’s a no count, you need to work at it until it gets counted.
When enough reps can be strung together, each one identical, each meeting the predetermined standards, only then can you progress by adding weight or complexity.

So to this end, I ask you to reconsider your 50 rep sets of push ups or your 100 burpees or that max effort squat. Ask your self, did every rep look the same? Did every rep start and end in the same place?
Did every rep count or were some of them no counts?

Define everything.
Be disciplined.

It is only then will you see real progress in your performance while reducing the injury risk.


Dave Hedges

Next Workshop:
Building a Better Cyclist – 27th July, 1000 – 1600, details HERE


What can Metallica at Glastonbury teach us about Fitness?

So, Metallica played at Glastonbury and the world didn’t end!

I’ve been a huge fan of the Metallica boys since my youth and this song has always been one of my favourites, when this came on my walkman when I was cycling home from my mates house I’d go round the block an extra few times just to listen to the track play out.

I still play it to this day and it’s as fresh as it was 20 years ago.

Which gets me thinking about things that stand the test of time.

In the time I’ve been involved in the martial arts and fitness worlds, many things have come and gone, fads and failures, but other things have stood the test of time, never going away.

1 – Bodyweight Training
It’s as old as training itself and as much as people try to reinvent the wheel and sell you gadgets and gimmicks, all you need is a few square feet of floor space and something to hang from and you have everything you need to develop strength and fitness.

This was made exceptionally apparent at the recent Ido Portal seminar where he explained how the gymnastic rings were the only tool he used to develop his and his students impressive upper body strength.

2 – Lifting Shit of the Floor.
Be it a deadlift, a clean, a snatch, an atlas stone, a child or your elderly mother. There is never a time where being good at lifting stuff of the floor is a bad idea.

3 – Lifting Shit Overhead
The overhead press gets a bad wrap, but again, it’s essential. These days there are few enough reasons for us to raise are arms over head in day to day life. I’m “full size” ie over 6′ tall, so the overhead compartment in an aeroplane, the top shelf in the supermarket and most other things are all within easy reach for me, so when would I ever need that strength over head?
Truth is, I almost never need it, except for the times when something out of the ordinary happens and suddenly I’m thankful for it.
Now if you’re less than full size, you better get your press on!

Ok, sizeist jokes aside,  overhead pressing, especially with the kettlebell is great for the rotator cuff. As are turkish get ups and windmills, two old fashioned lifts brought back to life by the ole Kettle.

4 – Endurance.
“Cardio Kills” yelled out several recent article headlines.
Yeah? So does not doing cardio.
As an animal of the genus Homo Erectus, I find that I have an extremely efficient cooling system, long legs with these magic springs on the end called feet. These feet are fitted with arches that act like the leaf springs in a Landrover and the bungee cord that is my achillies tendon.
I can breathe independently of movement as I don’t need to severely compress and expand my abdomen to stride out.
Yet apparently, the wisdom touted by strength coaches (who might just be biased…) and the medical community (who’d have us sitting down taking medication if they had their way) seem to think we shouldn’t run.
Bollocks I say.

5 – Play
Play sports, play games, play with movement.
Fun is considered childs play and has largely been taken out of fitness.
Yet attend WG-Fit and there’s laughing. Yes there’s sweating and grunting, but in between there’s laughter as the guys tell dirty jokes and slag each other.
Go to the local Globo gym and it’s full of po-faced, oh-so-serious dicks getting no where fast with their training.
So play, tell jokes, muck about a bit during rest periods, do fun shit in your warm ups and cool downs, accept silly challenges and stop taking everything so seriously!

Do you notice something about that list?

It’s not easy to sell any of those things.
Bodyweight training means you can go anywhere and train anywhere, I can’t sell you anything (except my eBook that is…..) so gyms don’t encourage you to do body weight training.

Lifting shit off the floor and lifting shit overhead are both frowned on in gyms because yes they’re hard and yes, they carry an injury risk and yes, from time to time you might grunt, squeal, shout, yell, drop the weight and even pass out. But who said getting awesome was easy?

Running, well treadmills, treadmills, treadmills. I hate treadmills. There’s a whole outside for you to run in. There’s parks, beaches, mountains. But you can’t monetize these things, which makes running cheap. Get some shoes and learn to flow. You’re welcome.

And play.
Well, how far we’ve come as adults that we’ve forgotten something we did naturally as kids eh?
repeat after me:

“We don’t stop playing because we grow old, we grow old because we stop playing”

I want you to repeat that every day. Then apply.

So thanks to Metallica being around for as long as I’ve had the option to pick my own music choices, and they’ve been a constant in that choice. As have all the other points listed above.

They’ve stood the test of time, not just for me but many, many others. And will for many generations to come.


Dave Hedges




Movement, Thought Processes, Ido Portal and the Asylum


LtoR: Mark Smith, Ido Portal & Me

Well, it’s been a hell of a week!

And by that, I mean a good week.

Last Friday I collected fellow My Mad Methods magazine writer and friend Mark Smith of Asylum Fitness in North Carolina from the airport.
He’d flown across the pond to join me and many others for a workshop with the legend that is Ido Portal.

If you haven’t heard of Ido, why the hell not?!?!
Watch him and his guys do some of their thing here:

He calls himself a “Movement Coach” and damn does that boy move.
Not only that he’s ridiculously strong.

Better yet, he brought with him three of his students as assistants.

And they could move.
And they were ridiculously strong.

The workshop was titled “Movement X” which is cool speak for “Movement Experience” and was an insight into the Ido Portal Method of training and a glimpse of the thought processes that fuel the method.

While we learned about the Squat as a basic human need, we looked at mobility both solo drills and with a partner. We did what he called kinesthetic puzzles where we had to figure out how to move a stick around with our bodies.
We were shown core strength and full body tension via handstand work.
We were shown how a simple set of gym rings, no people, not that overpriced TRX nonsense but a set of rings that cost a third of the price, are the foundation of Ido’s upper body strength work. This was also a time spent discussing the needs of the scapula, an area Ido has clearly studied in depth.
We learned straight arm strength, we learned bent arm strength, we learned progressions and repressions to both.
We learned locomotion patterns, bipedal low gait patterns and quadrupedal crawling patterns.

But more than that we were offered an insight into how Ido thinks.
The logic in the system, the madness behind the method and the incredible mix of art, science, philosophy and old school grit that really make the method work.

Exercises and movements are merely exercises and movements, but when you add to it the correct mindset and thought process they become so much more.

And that is what I saw over the weekend.

It’s something I look for every time I attend a workshop and often don’t see it presented, but if you earn it, Ido will offer you his soul. In two 9hour days he offered us a glimpse of what goes on behind his eyes, and inkling of how he thinks and a glimpse of what is possible in his world.

And I liked that. That alone made the course worthwhile, the actual training drills are just the icing.
After all, as Steve Maxwell often quotes, “Nothing is new in the world, its how you out it together that counts”

Earlier this year I was introduced to the Anatomy in Motion system which parallels the Ido Portal method in terms of the thought processes even if it has differing goals and methods. Different methods and goals, but a similar global view and overall goal. To help people move better.

This mindset is going to make WG-Fit better. The information will be amalgamated into the WG-Fit methods to further improve the training we offer our clients both in the flesh and online.

Before Mark left to go home to the States, he dropped by WG-Fit to pick my brains on the kettlebell lifts and then teach a class for me. They loved the Asylum Fitness bodyweight and movement stuff, well, loved to hate it……..


Dave Hedges

Don’t forget:

This Sunday: 1 Day Rapid Response Self Defence workshop, limited places still available HERE

Sat 26th July: Building a better cyclist workshop, details HERE



Being a Better Animal

I’m sat here thinking about the BJJ lads that I train and how they all brought medals home from last weekend’s tournament.
I’m also thinking of the upcoming Movement Experience Workshop with Ido Portal this weekend.

Two seemingly unrelated events but with one thing in common.
They’re about moving better, with skill and control. They’re about more than brute strength, more than speed, more than endurance and definitely more than aesthetics.

Many times since I started this blog I’ve mentioned a guy named Georges Herbert (say it in a French accent)
Georges philosophy of training speaks to me in many ways. He established a philosophy based on proficiency in several movement categories. He said a human should be able to walk, run, jump, move on all fours, climb, balance, throw, lift, defend yourself and swim
He also coined the phrase “Être fort pour être utile” or “being strong to be useful”

Think about that.

Be strong to be useful..

I call it “raising the average” or becoming a better animal.

A few years ago I used to work the doors with a burly bodybuilder who couldn’t box apples. The amount of times we had to rescue him as he couldn’t utilise his gym bulk and strength for anything other than looking good in a tight t-shirt.
To me that’s hours and hours of wasted time and energy. His training had made him less useful.

It is possible to look a certain way and still be athletic and useful. It’s just a matter of rounding out the training.

Why not add rope climbs, crawling movements, agility drills and the like to your training?
Why not learn to move fluidly in multiple planes of motion?

Your body will thank you for it as the nervous system relishes different challenges and movement patterns.

Add in some heavy bag work as a finisher, throwing solid punches is also one of the best ab workouts you’ll ever do.Superset this with some crawling or agility drills.

Do some plyometric work and multi direction lunges in the warm up.

Just don’t get one dimensional in your training. Do your main work but sandwich it with fun stuff, learn to be creative and to play. You’ll be a better animal for it.


Dave Hedges



The Real Purpose of Training

I see you all enjoyed Mondays guest post.
If you missed it, CLICK HERE and find out why Hardcore Core training and Ignition nutrition coaching founder Karen Coghlan gets really pissed off with the whole fad diet thing.

All going well, Karen will become a regular contributor to this blog, so finally, you might get some decent nutrition advice other than me repeatedly saying “Eat meat, veg and stop being a baby!”

But anyhow, back to my usual ranting and raving.

And today in the gym I was waxing philosophically about the point of fitness training.

One of my clients is studying acupuncture. She comes into the Lunchtime Sessions on an almost daily basis to work on basic strength. At the moment she’s doing more pull ups and harder variations than many of the lads, she swings bigger kettles than most of the lads and her squat and deadlift are creeping up.

But today she was taking things handy as exam stress is taking it’s toll, so the training stress is being reduced.

While she was in we discussed the cross over between the therapeutic method of acupuncture, the martial arts, Anatomy in Motion and of course, lifting heavy stuff.

What have they all got in common?

They are all there to increase our potential for performance. And by performance I mean everything you do, be it in day to day living, an emergency situation or in your chosen sport.

Training is there to increase your potential to move with speed, power and grace.

Discomfort is a normal by product of training.
That burning sensation deep in the muscles as you push out thise last reps.
The feeling that the heart may burst out of the rib cage on that last set of squats, or the second round of that complex.

The next day may be marked by some very slow, tentative moving as the body recovers from the training.

But come go time, you can go.

You can go further, faster, smoother. You can run, jump, crawl, throw, punch, kick, climb, swim and be all kinds of awesome.

If your training takes away from any of this, then what the fuck are you doing?

I’ve met people who can do the splits, but can’t do a full range bodyweight squat.
I’ve met guys who can deadlift a car, but struggle to simply step over the bar.
I’ve met runners who can’t do a push up and bodybuiders who couldn’t run for the bus.

And I’ve always wondered, why? Whats the point.

Ok, so if you compete at a high level, then specificity is important, but unless it’s paying your bills, why would you sacrifice your long term health?
Something to ponder on next time you’re resting between sets.


Dave Hedges

Fad Diets Piss Me Off

We have a special treat for you today.

Today we have a guest post from the owner of Hardcore Core and the Ignition nutrition program.
I asked Karen to write something for me after she joined WG-Fit recently and we started to learn about her no nonsense, (un)common sense approach to nutrition coaching.
Many of my crew have been quizzing her and I’m liking the answers she gives back.

So without further ado, I’ll hand over to Karen as she says:

Fuck Fad Diets

Fad diets piss me off. Because they completely and utterly fuck with your mind. They are pseudo-science. They make you skinny, for a while. Then they make you fat again, then skinny again, then fat again, then skinny again, then fat again. See the pattern? Fad diets are nothing more than a money robbing vicious circle of unhealthy muck.

Fad Diet Transformation

Not only do fad diets make you fatter than before, they also make you feel guilty, like a failure, like a piece of shit and just pure useless at times. Fad diets are not realistic, not sustainable, not maintainable, and are a complete mind fuck. They tell you what to do and don’t allow you to think and choose for yourself. They tell you not to listen to your very own body’s wants and needs. Unless you are completely devoid of hormones, as well as being emotionally detached from your body, then fad diets are bullshit.

Fad diets encourage compulsive obsessive habits and nutrition “rules”. They restrict or eliminate fun foods, which can later lead to binge eating. They encourage extremely unhealthy disordered eating patterns, or even worse, full blown eating disorders. Fad diets are simply harmful. They are gimmicks that drive you away from having a healthy relationship with food.

To build a healthy relationship with food, you must first FREE YOUR MIND. This might sound a bit hippy dippy to some people, but this is the bottom line. If you don’t do this then your relationship with food will be an extremely unhealthy and unhappy one for forever more.


Here’s an example of what I mean. You’ve decided to start following the Paleo diet, now picture the following two scenarios:

Scenario 1.
You get up in the morning and commit to being 100% compliant with your diet that day. You have a super duper healthy breakfast of eggs, some lean bacon and salsa. Elevenses hit and you have your berries and nuts that you brought to work with you. So far so good and feeling amazing, well done you, 100% so far.
Lunchtime rolls around and you unpack your Tupperware of salad with chicken breast, nom nom that was good and still 100% on track, woo! But then all shit hits the fan, uh oh, a meeting goes on late in work and by the time you get home you are STARVING so you grab the nearest thing when you get inside the door, a slice of toast.
Ensuing thought process: “Argh I’ve ruined my 100% compliance, I’m such a failure, I’m so useless, I can’t even stick to one day being 100%, I’m doomed, may as well have 3 more slices of toast now and half a pack of biscuits considering I’ve messed up already.”
You go to bed that night feeling like shit and wake up the next morning with a pending feeling of DOOM that you have to start your diet ALL OVER AGAIN, UUUUGGGGHH. Fuck it, you’ll wait until Monday and start the diet then instead.


Scenario 2.
You get up in the morning and say that you will give your best effort that day to be as compliant to your diet as you realistically can. You have a super duper healthy breakfast of eggs, some lean bacon and salsa. Elevenses hit and you have your berries and nuts that you brought to work with you.
So far so good and feeling amazing, well done you.
Lunchtime rolls around and you unpack your Tupperware of salad with chicken breast, nom nom that was good and still giving my best effort, woo! But then your meeting goes on late in work, uh oh, and by the time you get home you are STARVING so you grab the nearest thing when you get inside the door, a slice of toast.
Ensuing thought process: “Grand that will keep me going while I chop my veg and throw some chicken under the grill. One slice of toast is barely 10% deviation from my nutrition program… deadly that means I am still 90% compliant, go me, I am great, job well done! Now to find the hot sauce to drown my chicken in…” That night you go to bed feeling great about yourself, and wake up the next morning feeling even better knowing that you are one step closer to succeeding with your goals, HOORAY!

The single ONLY difference that day was the thoughts you had that morning. Those thoughts became your behaviours, and your behaviours determined the outcome. Think effort, not perfection. And if you fuck up from time to time, then that’s ok. Life happens.

Give yourself a God damn break.

This “All or Nothing” mind-set leads to the same sort of behaviour that fad dieting encourages. This is a very demeaning way to live your life and encourages very low self-esteem due to a constant perception of failure.

Change your thoughts, change your behaviours, and ultimately change the outcome. I know all this because I have been there. I’ve been an obsessive dieter. I’ve been to the bottom of the fad diet barrel. And it is my sincerest hope and intention to do everything in my power to prevent others from going there too, as it is the most unpleasant, darkest and unhealthiest place I have ever been.

ACCEPT who you are.
BE who you are.
GIVE yourself a break.
FREE your mind.

And for fuck sake, GO EAT a Mars bar every now and then.
Enjoy every single last lick of the Mars bar. Then move on and never think of the Mars bar ever again. Vote for moderation. Vote for a freer happier mind. You will be more confident than any magic diet pill or fad diet will ever make you. The body will follow.

Colours in between

My final thoughts: Succeeding with fat loss takes a truck load more than just blindly following a “diet” or mindlessly eating from a meal plan that a nutrition guru gave you. It takes patience. It takes consistency. It takes finding a balance that works for you. It takes setting achievable realistic goals. It takes ridding yourself of unnecessary expectations. It takes understanding that it will take time. It takes giving yourself a break. It takes eating a Mars bar every now and then.

by Karen Coghlan
Website: http://www.hardcorecore.ie/#!ignition/ca4p
Email: info@hardcorecore.ie
Facebook: facebook.com/hardcorecore
Instagram: instagram.com/kcoghlan_nutcoach


You’ll be hearing more from Karen on this blog, but until then, check out the links above.



Dave Hedges